Use of Different Bulking Agents and Inoculation Agent in Composting of Food Industry Process Wastes

Selnur UÇAROĞLU, Behice Gamze GÜMRAH
446 181

Abstract


The aim of this study was to investigate the compostability of food industry process wastes with different bulking agents for disposal and recovery, and to determine the effect of treatment sludge which was used as inoculation agent. Sunflower stalk and corn cob were mixed to process wastes as bulking agents. Four different compost mixtures were prepared to investigate composting of process wastes. Process wastes and sunflower stalk to first mixture (M1) at ratio of 3:2; process wastes, treatment sludge and sunflower stalk to second mixture (M2) at ratio of 3:1:2; process wastes, treatment sludge and corn cob to third mixture (M3) at ratio of 3:1:2; process wastes, treatment sludge and corn cob to fourth mixture (M4) at ratio of 3:1:3 were added. M1 mixture was prepared without inoculation agent as control mixture.  Temperature, dry matter content, organic matter loss, C/N ratio, pH and electrical conductivity parameters were monitored during the composting process for 28 days. The highest organic matter losses and the highest temperature formed in the process were monitored in M3 reactor. According to the results, for the efficiently composting process; process wastes with treatment sludge as inoculation agent and corn cob as bulking agent at ratio of 3:1:2 were determined.


Keywords


Treatment sludge; Inoculation Agent; Food industry process waste; Bulking agent; Composting

Full Text:

PDF (Türkçe)


References


Adhikari, B. K., Barrington, S., Martinez, J. and King, S. (2009) Effectiveness of three bulking agents for food waste composting, Waste Management, 29, 197–203. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.04.001

Al-jabi, L. F., Halalsheh, M. M. and Badarneh, D. M. (2008) Conservation of ammonia during food waste composting, Environmental Technology, 29, 1067–1073. doi:10.1080/09593330802175872

APHA, AWWA, WPCF, (1998). Standart Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Copyright by American Public Health Association, 20th edition, Baltimore, USA, 1269.

Barrington, S., Choinière, D., Trigui, M., Knight, W. (2002) Effect of carbon source on compost nitrogen and carbon losses, Bioresource Technology, 83, 189–194. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00229-2

Bremner, J. M. and Mulvaney, C. S. (1982) Nitrogen-total in Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties (ed A.L. Page), SSSA Book Series No 9, Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI., 595-622.

Cao, W., Xu, H., Zhang, H. (2013) Architecture and functional groups of biofilms during composting with and without inoculation, Process Biochemistry, 48, 1222–1226. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2013.06.015

Cheung, H. N. B., Huang, G. H., Yu, H. (2010) Microbial-growth inhibition during composting of food waste: effects of organic acids, Bioresource Technology, 101, 5925–5934. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.062

Chang, J. I., Chen, Y. J. (2010) Effects of bulking agents on food waste composting, Bioresource Technology, 101, 5917–5924. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.042

Chan, M. T., Selwam, A., Wong, J. W. C. (2016) Reducing nitrogen loss and salinity during ‘struvite’ food waste composting by zeolite amendment, Bioresource Technology, 200, 838–844. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2015.10.093

Choy, S. Y., Wang, K., Qi W., Wang, B., Chen, C. L., Wang, J. Y. (2015) Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues, Environmental Technology, 36(11), 1448-1456. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2014.993728

Diaz, L. F., Bertoldi, M., Bidlingmaier, W., Stentiford, E. (2007) Compost Science and Technology, Elsevier Publishers, Issn 1478-7482, 8(51).

Haug, R.T. ( 1993) The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. CRC Publishers Ltd., Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Kalemelawa, F., Nishihara, E., Endo, T., Ahmad, Z., Yeasmin, R., Tenywa, M. M., Yamamoto, S. (2012) An Evaluation of Aerobic and Anaerobic Composting of Banana Peels Treated With Different İnoculums for Soil Nutrient Replenishment, Bioresource Technology, 126, 375–382. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2012.04.030

Khalil, A. I, Hassouna, M. S, El-Ashqar, H. M. A., Fawzi, M. (2011) Changes in physical, chemical and microbial parameters during the composting of municipal sewage sludge, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 27(10), 2359–2369. doi: 10.1007/s11274-011-0704-8

Keeney, D. R. and Nelson, D. W. (1982) Nitrogen-inorganic forms in Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, (ed A.L. Page), 643-693, SSSA Book Series No 9, Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

KT, (2015). Kompost Tebliği, T.C. Resmi Gazete, 29286, 5 Mart 2015.

Kumar, M., Ou, Y. L., Lin, J. G. (2010) Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio, Waste Management, 30, 602–609. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2009.11.023

Li, S., Huang, G. H., An, C. J., Yu, H. (2013) Effect of different buffer agents on in-vessel composting of food waste: Performance analysis and comparative study, Journal Environmental Science and Health.Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances &Environmental Engineering, 48 (7), 772-780. doi:10.1080/10934529.2013.744637

Mirabella, N., Valentina, C., Sala, S. (2014) Current options fort he valorization of food manufacturing waste: a review, Journal of Cleaner Production, 65, 28-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.10.051

Mc Lean, E. O. (1982) Soil pH and Lime Requirement in Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, (A.L. Page, ed.), ASA-SSSA. Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 199-223.

Nikaeen, M., Nafez, A. H., Bina, B., Nabavi, B. F., Hassanzadeh, A. (2015) Respiration and enzymatic activities as indicators of stabilization of sewage sludge composting, Waste Management, 39, 104–110. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.01.028

Okalebo, J. R., Gathua, K. W., Woomer, P. L. (1993) Laboratory methods of soil and plant analysis: a working manual, TSBF programe, Soil Science Society of East Africa technical publication no. 1, UNESCO, Rosta, Kenya.

Paredes, S. C., Bernal, M. P., Cegarra, J., Roig, A. (2002) Bio-degradation of Olive Mill Wastewater Sludge by its Co-Composting With Agriculturalwastes, Bioresource Technology, 85, 1-8. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00078-0

Rhoades, J. D. (1982) Soluble Salts in Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, (A.L. Page, ed.), ASA-SSSA. Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 167-178.

Uçaroğlu, S. (2014) Use of Sunflower Stalks as a Bulking Agent in Sewage Sludge Composting, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 23(6): 1302-1308. doi:10.3291/F-2013-546pj2014

Uçaroğlu S., Alkan S. (2016) Composting of wastewater treatment sludge with different bulking agents, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 66(3), 288-295. doi:10.1080/10962247.2015.1131205

USEPA, (1993). Standards for the Use and Disposal of Sewage, 40 CFR Parts 257, 403, and 503 (FRO-4203-3), Final Rule, Fed. Register, 58, 9248, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. February 19.

Wang, X., Cui, H., Shi, J., Zhao, X., Zhao, Y., Wei, Z. (2015) Relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters during composting of different raw materials, Bioresource Technology, 198, 395–402. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2015.09.041

Yağcı, S., Altan, A., Göğüş, F., Maskan, M. (2006) Gıda Atıklarının Alternatif Kullanım Alanları, Türkiye 9. Gıda Kongresi, Bolu.

Yu, H., Huang, G. H. (2009) Effects of sodium acetate as a pH control amendment on the composting of food waste, Bioresource Technology, 100, 2005-2011. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.10.007

Yang, F., Li, G., Shi, H., Wang, Y. (2015) Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting, Waste Management, 36, 70–76. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2014.11.012




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.