Use of Probiotic Microorganisms for Bio-Protective Aims

2.180 887


It was known that some diseases can be treated as the result of the use of antibiotics in certain periods and at certain dosages while inactivating and deteriorating normal microorganisms performing useful activities in human metabolism (in especially intestinal flora). It was occured that after the use of antibiotics, some defects can be seen resulting from antibiotics (such as allergy, diarrhea, gas formation etc). With this aim, nutraceutics and functional food have gained importance over the last years and consumers began to be interested in probiotics, natural antioxidants, dietary fibres, products with low calorie and cholesterol contents, especially the products containing probioticbacteria. Bacteriocins produced by probiotic bacteria can play important roles as food protective and safeguarding since they can compete with unwanted or pathogen microorganisms survive in the media and colonize in intestines. In this review, is aimed to emphasis bioprotective compounds, advantages and disadvantages of biopreservation method and the importance of the mechanisms of probiotic microorganisms.


Probiotic bacteria, Bioprotective, Bacteriocin, Food security

Full Text:

PDF (Türkçe)



Abee, T., Krockel, L. and Hill, C. (1995). Bacteriocins: models of action and potentials in food preservation and control of food poisoning. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 28, 169–185.

Akkoç, N., Şanlıbaba, P. ve Akçelik, M. (2009). Bakteriyosinler: Alternatif gıda koruyucuları. Erciyes Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 25, 59–70.

Ananou, S., Maqueda, M., Martínez-Bueno, M. and Valdivia, E. (2007). Biopreservation, an ecological approach to improve the safety and shelf-life of foods. Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology, 475–486.

Arihara, K. (2006) Strategies for designing novel functional meat products. Meat Science, 74, 219–229.

Başyiğit, G., Karahan, A.G. ve Kılıç, B. (2007). Fermente et ürünlerinde fonksiyonel starter kültürler ve probiotikler. Türk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi, 64(2), 60-69.

Berlutti, F., Morea, C., Battistoni, A., Sarli, S., Cipriani, P., Superti, F., Ammendolia, M.G. and Valenti, P. (2005). Iron availability influences aggregation, biofilm, adhesion and invasion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology,18, 661–670.

Brock, J. H. (2002). The physiology of lactoferrin. Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 80, 1–6.

Bromberg, R., Moreno, I., Zaganini, C.L., Delboni, R.R. and Oliveira, J. (2004). Isolation of bacteriosin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteri from Meat Products and Its Spectrum of Inhibitory Activity. Brazi Journal of Microbiology, 35, 137–144.

Bruno, M. E. and Montville, T. J. (1993). Common mechanistic action of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology,59(9), 3003-3010.

Budak Bağdatlı, A. ve Kundakçı, A. (2013). Fermente et ürünlerinde probiyotik mikroorganizmaların kullanımı. C.B.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 9(1), 31 – 37.

Chen, H. and Hoover, D.G. (2003). Bacteriocins and their food applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2, 82–100.

Corbo, M.R., Albenzio M., de Angelis, M., Sevi, A. and Gobbetti, M. (2001). Microbiological and biochemical properties of Canestrato Pugliese hard cheese supplemented with Bifidobacteria. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 551–561.

Çakır, İ. ve Çakmakçı, M.L. (2002). Probiyotik teknolojisi ve Türkiye’deki durumu. pp. 179-187. Türkiye 7. Gıda Kongresi kitabı, Ankara Üniversitesi, 182 s., Ankara.

Daeschel, M. (1989). Antimicrobial substances from lactic acid bacteria for use as food preservatives. Food Technology, 42, 164–167.

Davidson, P.M., Juneja, V.K. and Branen, J.K. (2002). Antimicrobial Agents. In: Branen, A.L., Davidson, P.M., Salminen, S. and Thorngate J.H. (Eds). Food Additives. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Devlieghere, F., Vermeiren, L. and Debevere, J. (2004). New preservation technologies: possibilities and limitations. International Dairy Journal, 14, 273–285.

Earnshaw, R.G. (1992). The antimicrobial action of lactic acid bacteria: Natural preservation systems. In “The Lactic Acid Bacteria: Vol 1. The Lactic Acid Bacteria in Health and Disease”. Ed. B. J. B. Wood. Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd., Crown House, Linton Road,Barking, Essex 1G11 8JU, England.

Ellison, R.T., Giehl, T.J. and LaForce, F.M. (1988). Damage of the outer membrane of entric Gram negative bacteria by lactoferrin and transferrin. Infection and Immununity, 56, 2774–2781.

El-Ziney, M.G., Debevere, J. and Jakobsen, M. (2000). Reuterin. In: Natural Food Antimicrobial Systems, Naidu AS (chief ed), CRC Press, London, 567–587.

FAO/WHO, (2002). Guidelines for the evaluationof probiotics in food. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization Working Group Report. Accessed July 20, 2011.

Farnaud, S. and Evans, R.W. (2003). Lactoferrin: a multifunctional protein with antimicrobial properties. Molecular Immunology, 40, 395–405.

Fukusihma, Y., Kawata, Y., Hara, H., Terada, A. and Mitsuoka, T. (1998). Effect of probiotic formula on intestinal immunoglobulin. A production in healty children. International Journal of Food Microbiology,42, 39–44.

Fuller, R. (1999). Probiotics, Colonic Microbiota. Nutrition and Health, 89–99.

Gill, A.O. and Holley, R.A. (2000). Inhibition of bacterial growth on ham and bologna by lysozyme, nisin and EDTA. Food Research International, 33, 83–90.

Gürsel, A. Şenel, E. ve Yaman, Ş. (2004). Yoğurtta maya ve küf gelişimine karşı biyokoruyucu kültür kullanımı. Gıda, 29(4), 283–289.

Heng, N.C.K. and Tagg, J.R. (2006). What is in a name? Class distinction for bacteriocins. Nat Rev Microbiol,, 4. Correspondence (February 2006).

Holtzel, A., Ganzle, M.G., Nicholson, G.J., Hammes, W.P. and Jung, G. (2000). The first low molecular weight antibiotic from lactic acid bacteria: reutericyclin, a new tetramic acid. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 39, 2766–2768.

Holzapfel, W.H., Geisen, R. and Schillinger, U. (1995). Biological preservation of foods with reference to protective cultures, bacteriocins and food-grade enzymes. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 24, 343–362.

Kandemir Can, B.D. (2001) Fermente Türk Sucuğu üretiminde probiyotik bakterilerin kullanımı. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara.

Karahan, A.G. ve Çakmakçı, M.L. (1996). Probiyotikler. Gıda Dergisi, 21(4), 297–302.

Karahan, A.G. (1992). Streptococcus diacetylactis’ten yüksek düzeyde diasetil oluşturan mutantların eldesi ve bunların doğal suşa oranla faj duyarlılıklarının belirlenmesi. Doktora Tezi (yayınlanmamış), Ankara Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Gıda Bilimi ve Teknolojisi, 118s, Ankara.

Kesenkaş, H., Gürsoy, O., Kınık, Ö. ve Akbulut, N. (2006). Extension of shelf life of dairy products by biopresevation: protective cultures. Gıda, 31, 217–223.

Kılıç, S. (2001). Süt Endüstrisinde Laktik Asit Bakterileri. Ege Üni. Yayın No:542, Ege Üni. Ziraat Fak., İzmir.

Kılıç, G.B., Kuleaşan, H., Eralp, I. ve Karahan, A.G. (2009). Manufacture of Turkish Beyaz cheese added with probiotic strains. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 42, 1003–1008.

Klaenhammer, T.R. (1988). Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria. Biochimie, 70, 337–349.

Kuleaşan, H. and Çakmakçı, M. L. (2002a). Effect of reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri on the surface of sausages to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. Nahrung Food, 46(6), 408–410.

Kuleaşan, H. ve Çakmakçı, M.L. (2002b). Laktobasiller tarafından üretilen bakteriyosinlerin tanımlanması, sınıflandırılması ve bunların bazı gıda kaynaklı patojenler üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi. Doktora Tezi (yayınlanmamış), Ankara Üniversitesi 79s, Ankara.

Lewus, C.B. Kaiser, A. and Montville, T.J. (1991). Inhibition of Food-Borne Bacterial Pathogens by Bacteriosins from Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Meat. App Environ Microbiol, 57(6), 1683–1688.

Lyon, W.J. and Glatz, B.A. (1991). Partial purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Propionibacterium thoenii. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 57, 701–706.

Lyon, W.J. Sethi, J.K. and Glatz, B.A. (1993). Inhibition of psychrotrophic organisms by propionicin PLG–1, a bacteriocin produced by Propionibacterium thoenii. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 1506–1513.

Magnusson, J. and Schnürer, J. (2001). Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis strain Si3 produces a broad-spectrum proteinaceous antifungal compound. App. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 1–5.

Magnusson, J., Ström, K., Roos, S., Sjögren, J. and Schnürer, J. (2003). Broad and complex antifungal activity among environmental isolates of lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 219, 129-135.

Marug, J.D. (1991). Bacteriocins, their role in developing natural products. Food Biotechnology, 5, 305–312.

Mitsuoka, T. (1990). Bifidobacteria and their role in human health. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 6, 263–268.

Naidu, A.S. (2000). Overview. In: Naidu, A.S., (Ed). Natural Food Antimicrobial Systems, Chapter 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Ochoa, T.J. and Cleary, T.G. (2009). Effect of lactoferrin on enteric pathogens. Biochimie 91, 30–34.

Parker, R.B. (1974). Probiotics, the other half of the antibiotic story. Animal Nutrition Health, 29, 4-8.

Piard, J.C. and Desmazeaud, M. (1991). Inhibiting factors produced by lactic acid bacteria. 1. Oxygen metabolites and catabolism end-products. Lait, 71, 525–541.

Piard, J.C. and Desmazeaud, M. (1992). Inhibiting factors produced by lactic acid bacteria. 2. Bacteriosins and other antibacterial substances. Lait, 72, 113–142.

Pitino, I., Randazzo, C.L., Cross, K.L., Parker, M.L., Bisignano, C., Wickham, M.S.J., Mandalari, G. and Caggia, C. (2012). Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains inoculated in cheese matrix during simulated human digestion. Food Microbiology, 31, 57–63.

Pinto, M.S., de Carvalho, A.F., Pires, A.C.S., Souza, A.A.C., da Silva, P.H.F. and Sobral, D. (2011). The effects of nisin on Staphylococcus aureus count and the physicochemical properties of traditional minas serro cheese. International Dairy Journal, 21, 90–96.

Quwehand, A.C., Kirjavainen, P.V., Grönlund, M., Isoluari, E. and Salminen, S.J. (1999). Adhesion of probiotic microorganisms to intestinal mucus. International Dairy Journal, 9, 623–630.

Ray, B. (1996). Fundamental Food Microbiology. CRC Press, Inc., New York, 191-200.

Rattanachaikunsopon, P. and Phumkhachorn, P. (2010). Lactic acid bacteria: their antimicrobial compounds and their uses in food production. Annals Bio Research, 1(4), 218-228.

Rodrigues, D. Rocha-Santos, T.A.P. Gomes, A.M. Goodfellow, B.J. and Freitas, A.C. (2012). Lipolysis in probiotic and synbiotic cheese: The influence of probiotic bacteria, prebiotic compounds and ripening time on free fatty acid profiles. Food Chemistry, 131, 1414–1421.

Rolfe, R.D. (2000). The role of probiotic cultures in the control of gastrointestinal Health. Journal of Nutrition (Supplement), 130, 396–402.

Ross, R.P., Morgan, S. and Hill, C. (2002). Preservation and fermentation: Past, present and future. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 79, 3–16.

Salminen, S. (1998). Probiotics: Scientific support for use. Food Technology, 53(11), 66.

Salminen, S. and von Wright, A. (1998). Lactic Acid Bacteria Microbiology and Functional Aspects. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, ABD, 617 p.

Samelis, J., Kakouri, A., Rogga, K.J., Savvaidis, I.N. and Kontominas, M.G. (2003). Nisin treatments to control Listeria monocytogenes post-processing contamination on Anthotyros, a traditional Greek whey cheese, stored at 4oC in vacuum packages. Food Microbiology, 20, 661–669.

Sanders, M.E. and Huis int Veld, J. (1999). Bringing a probiotic containing functional food to the market: Microbiological, product, regulatory and labelling issues. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 76, 293–315.

Sarkar, S. and Misra, A.K. (1995). Recent trends in utilization of Propionibacterium-A review. Journal of Dairying Foods and Home Sciences, 14, 11–16.

Schillinger U. and Lücke F.K. (1989). Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus sake Isolated from Meat. App Environ Microbiol, 55(8), 1901–1906.

Schnürer, J. and Magnusson, J. (2005). Antifungal lactic acid bacteria as biopreservatives. Trends in Food Science & Technology 16, 70–78.

Schrezenmeir, J. and Vrese, M. (2001). Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics approaching a defination. American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 73, 361–365.

Seçkin, A.K., Tosun, H. ve Aritürk, R. (2010). Biyokorumanın Süt Endüstrisinde Kullanım Olanakları. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi, 5(3), 36–46.

Speckman, R.A. and Collins, E.B. (1968). Diacetyl biosynthesis in Streptococcus diacetilactis and Leuconostoc citrovorum. Journal of Bacteriology, 95(1), 174–180.

Sudağıdan, M. and Aydın, A. (2013). Lizozim ve nisinin gıda kaynaklı Staphylococcus aureus suşlarında gelişim ve biyofilm oluşumu üzerine etkileri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Veterinerlik Fakültesi Dergisi, 39(2), 254–263.

Soomro, A.H., Anwaar, M. and Anwar, K. (2002). Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in Food Preservation and Human Health. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 1 (1), 20-24.

Songisepp, E., Hütt, P., Rätsep, M., Shkut, E., Kõljalg, S., Truusalu, K., Stsepetova, J., Smidt, I., Kolk, H., Zagura, M. and Mikelsaar, M. (2012). Safety of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia according to a variety of health indices in different age groups. Journal Dairy Research,95, 5495–5509.

Stiles, M.E. (1996). Biopreservation by lactic acid bacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 70, 331–345.

Şenel, E., Gürsel, A., Yaman, Ş. and Tamuçay, B. (2006). Set tipi yoğurdun nitelikleri üzerine biyokoruyucu kültür kullanımının etkisi. Gıda, 31(1), 21–26.

Tamime, A.Y. and Robinson, R.K. (1999). Yoghurt: Science and Technology. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge.

Tannock, G.V. (1997). Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Plenty of Scapefor Fundamental, R&D, Tibtech., 15, 270.

Thomas, L.V. and Wimpenny, J.W.T. (1996). Investigation of the effect of combined variations in temperature, pH and NaCl concentration on nisin inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. App Environ Microbiol, 62, 2006–2012.

Thomas, L.V. and Delves, B. (2005). Nisin. In: Antimicrobials in Food. Davidson P.M. Sofos JN, Branen AL. (chief eds), Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 237–275.

Visser, R. Holzapfel, W.H. Bezuidenhout, J.J. and Kotze, J.M. (1986). Antagonism of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Phytopathogenic Bacteria. App Environ Microbiol, 52(3), 552–555.

Weinberg, E.D. (2004). Suppression of bacterial biofilm formation by iron limitation. Medical Hypotheses, 63, 863–865.

Willem, M. de Vos. (1999). Gene expression systems for lactic acid bacteria. Current Opinion Microbiology, 2(3), 289–295.

Yangılar, F. (2010). Farklı probiyotik kültürler kullanılarak üretilen beyaz peynirin olgunlaşma periyodu boyunca bazı kalite kriterlerinin araştırılması. Doktora Tezi, Atatürk Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Erzurum.

Yıldırım, Z., Tokatlı, M., Öncül, N. ve Yıldırım, M. (2011). Laktoferrinin Biyolojik Aktivitesi. Akademik Gıda, 9(6), 52–63.

Yücecan, S. (2002). Probiyotikler ve Sağlık üzerine etkileri. Türkiye Diyetisyenler Derneği Bülteni, 2, 1–13.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.