Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Usage of Oil Industry Products and Wastes as Alternative Fuel

Dilek BOLAT, Emine CAN-GÜVEN, Kadir GEDİK, Perihan Binnur KURT-KARAKUŞ
4.250 1.194


The need for oil industry products has been increasing in parallel to the rapid population growth and industrialization. Physical and chemical properties of these products change after usage based on the media and operating conditions. Then, these products lose the eligibility and turn into the form of waste. The most commonly used method for the disposal of waste oils is combustion due to its high calorific value. In this study, the possible effects on the environment and human health of combustion of oil industry products and wastes are evaluated. Poor combustion conditions lead emissions from the process depending on the ingredients of wastes in addition to incomplete combustion products such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic chemicals polyaromatic hydrocarbons, metals etc. that may occur according to the type of waste. These emissions are released into the environment and partition between soil, water and air media related to their physicochemical characteristics. In addition to environmental problems, these emissions are a risk factor for human health in terms of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Regulations and control measures should be put into practice in order to get rid of the effects of non-standard diesel like product named number 10 lube on human health and environment. In this context, emission measurements should be done simultaneously to determine the effects of combustion of these wastes and products of oil industry.


Number 10 Lube; Base Oil; Hazardous Waste; Particulate Matter; Organic Pollutants; Vegetable/Animal Oil

Full Text:

PDF (Türkçe)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17482/uujfe.00346


Akkapılı, Y. (2012) Madeni Yağ Ansiklopedisi, Solver Kimya, Adana.

Akkurt, M. (1982) Makina Elemanları, Birsen Yayınları, İstanbul

Altun, Ş. and Öner, C. (2010) Hayvansal Yağların Dizel Motor Yakıtı Olarak Değerlendirilmesi, Electronic Journal of Vehicle Technologies (EJVT), 2 (3), 1-11.

Andrews, L. (2008) Compendium of Recycling and Destruction Technologies for Waste Oils, United Nations Environment Programme

Aoki, Y. (2001) Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychloronated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as endocrine disrupters - What we have learned from Yusho disease, Environmental Research, 86 (1), 2-11. doi: 10.1006/enrs.2001.4244

ATSDR (1995) Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Georgia.

ATSDR (1997) Toxicological profile for used mineral-based crankcase oil, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Georgia.

Ay-Büyüknisan, P. (2013). Analysis of The Effects of Different Additives on Base Oils, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul.

Beer, T., Grant, T., Brown, R., Edwards, J., Nelson, P., Watson, H. and Williams, D. (2000) Life-cycle Emissions Analysis of Alternative Fuels for Heavy Vehicles: Stage 1, Australian Greenhouse Office, Melbourne.

Birnbaum, L. S. (1994) The mechanism of dioxin toxicity: relationship to risk assessment, Environmental Health Perspectives, 102 157-167.

Broker, G. and Gliwa, H. (1986) U Dioxin-und Furanemissionen bei der Verbrennung von Altöl, Staub. Reinhaltung der Luft, 46 (10), 435-438.

BSYD, (2014). Bitkisel Yağ Sanayicileri Derneği Türkiye İstatistikleri. Erişim Adresi: http://www.bysd.org.tr/Istatistikler.aspx (Erişim Tarihi: 12.12.2014)

Caterpillar, 1996. Blending used Crankcase Oil with Diesel Fuel for use in Caterpillar Heavy Duty Diesel Engines, Engine Data Sheet 62.1, USA.

Chetwittayachan, T., Shimazaki, D. and Yamamoto, K. (2002) A comparison of temporal variation of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) concentration in different urban environments: Tokyo, Japan, and Bangkok, Thailand, Atmospheric Environment, 36 (12), 2027-2037. doi: 10.1016/s1352-2310(02)00099-7

Cheung, K. L., Ntziachristos, L., Tzamkiozis, T., Schauer, J. J., Samaras, Z., Moore, K. F. and Sioutas, C. (2010) Emissions of Particulate Trace Elements, Metals and Organic Species from Gasoline, Diesel, and Biodiesel Passenger Vehicles and Their Relation to Oxidative Potential, Aerosol Science and Technology, 44 (7), 500-513. doi: 10.1080/02786821003758294

Concawe (1996) Collection and disposal of used lubricating oil, Environmental Science for the European Refining Industry, Brüksel.

Çanakçı, M. and Akıncı,İ. (2007) Antalya ili seralarında kullanılan havalandırma ve ısıtma sistemleri, Akdeniz Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(2) 241-252.

Çengelci, E., Bayrakçeken, H. and Aksoy, F. (2011) Hayvansal ve Bitkisel Yağlardan Elde Edilen Biyodizelin Dizel Yakıtı ile Karşılaştırılması, Electronic Journal of Vehicle Technologies (EJVT), 3 (1), 41-53.

Dalton, T. P., Kerzee, J. K., Wang, B., Miller, M., Dieter, M. Z., Lorenz, J. N., Shertzer, H. G., Nebert, D. W. and Puga, P. A. (2001) Dioxin exposure is an environmental risk factor for ischemic heart disease, Cardiovascular toxicology, 1 (4), 285-298.

Delistraty, D. and Stone, A. (2007) Dioxins, metals, and fish toxicity in ash residue from space heaters burning used motor oil, Chemosphere, 68 (5), 907-914. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.01.070

Devoogt, P. (1991) The determination of polychlorinated-biphenyls in waste mineral oils-A Review, Chemosphere, 23 (7), 901-914. doi: 10.1016/0045-6535(91)90095-u

Diesel, R. (1895). Diesel, Patent numarası: US542846, Erişim adresi: https://www.google.com/patents/US542846 (Erişim Tarihi: 12.12.2014)

Domeno, C. and Nerin, C. (2003) Fate of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis of industrial waste oils, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 67 (2), 237-246. doi: 10.1016/s0165-2370(02)00064-5

Dominguez-Rosado, E. and Pichtel, J. (2003) Chemical characterization of fresh, used and weathered motor oil via GC/MS, NMR and FTIR techniques. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, 112 (2): 109-116.

Dong, L., Shu, G., Liang, X., Wang, Y. and Liu, L. (2012) Effect of lubricating oil additives on particle size distribution and total number concentration in diesel engine, Lubrication Science, 24 (7), 325-338. doi: 10.1002/ls.1196

Douben, P. E. (2003) PAHs: an ecotoxicological perspective, John Wiley & Sons, Bedford.

Durak, E., Çulcuoğlu, E. and Karaosmanoğlu, F. (2001) Hidrolik Yağların Katkıları, II. Ulusal Hidrolik Pnömatik Kongresi ve Sergisi, İzmir.

EPA (1996) Vermont Used Oil Analysis and Waste Oil Furnace Emissions Study, Environmental Protection Agency, North Carolina.

EPA (2001) Uncontrolled Emission Factor Listing for Criteria Air Pollutants, Environmental Protection Agency, North Carolina.

EPA (2014-a). Used Oil Management Program. Erişim Adresi: (Erişim Tarihi: 12.12.2014)

EPA (2014-b). Waste Oil Combustion. Erişim Adresi: http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch01/final/c01s11.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 12.12.2014)

Erickson, M. D. (1997) Analytical chemistry of PCBs, CRC Press, Florida.

Erickson, M. D. and Kaley, R. G., II (2011) Applications of polychlorinated biphenyls, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 18 (2), 135-151. doi: 10.1007/s11356-010-0392-1

Eryılmaz, T., Hüseyin, Ö., Hidayet, O. and Bacak, S. (2010) Investigation of the Performance and Emission Values of Non-Standard Fuels at Diesel Engines, Tarım Makinaları Bilimi Dergisi, 6 (1)

ETKB (2014) Yakıt Kalorifik Değerleri, Yenilenebilir Enerji Genel Müdürlüğü/Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı. Erişim Adresi: http://www.eie.gov.tr/eie-web/turkce/en_tasarrufu/uetm/ts13.html (Erişim Tarihi: 12.12.2014)

Fiedler, H. (1996) Sources of PCDD/PCDF and impact on the environment, Chemosphere, 32 (1), 55-64. doi: 10.1016/0045-6535(95)00228-6

Gedik, K. and Uzun, Y. (2015) Characterization of the properties of diesel-base oil-solvent-waste oil blends used as generic fuel in diesel engines, Fuel Processing Technology, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.032

Gedik, K. and Yurdakul, M. (2014) Assessment of chemical content of base oil blends used as alternative diesel fuel for environmental safety, Transportation Research Part D:Transport and Environment, 30, 86-94. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2014.05.010

Graboski, M. S. and Mccormick, R. L. (1998) Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 24 (2), 125-164. doi: 10.1016/s0360-1285(97)00034-8

Grimmer, G., Brune, H., Deutschwenzel, R., Dettbarn, G., Misfeld, J., Abel, U. and Timm, J. (1984) The contribution of polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons to the carcinogenic impact of emission condensate from coal-fired residential furnaces evaluated by topical application to the skin of mice, Cancer Letters, 23 (2), 167-176. doi: 10.1016/0304-3835(84)90150-2

Gulyurtlu, I., Lopes, H. and Cabrita, I. (1996) The determination of emissions of pollutants from burning waste oils, Fuel, 75 (8), 940-944. doi: 10.1016/0016-2361(96)00051-8

Güneş, G. and Ertürk, F. (2009) İZAYDAŞ Tehlikeli Atık Yakma Tesisi ve İSTAÇ Tıbbi Atık Yakma Tesisinde Dioksin/Furan Oluşumunun ve Giderilminin İncelenmesi, Ekoloji, 18 (70), 67-73.

Hagenmaier, H. and Brunner, H. (1987) Isomerspecific analysis of pentachlorophenol and sodium pentachlorophenate for 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF at sub-ppb levels, Chemosphere, 16 (8-9), 1759-1764. doi: 10.1016/0045-6535(87)90164-0

Hall, R. E., Cooke, W. M. and Barbour, R. L. (1983) Comparison of air pollutant emissions from vaporizing and air atomizing waste oil heaters, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 33 (7), 683-687.

Hartenstein, H. U. (2003) Dioxin and furan reduction technologies for combustion and industrial thermal process facilities, Springer, Germany.

Hewstone, R. K. (1994) Health, safety and environmental aspects of used crankcase lubricating oils, Science of the Total Environment, 156 (3), 255-268. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(94)90192-9

Kampa, M. and Castanas, E. (2008) Human health effects of air pollution, Environmental Pollution, 151 (2), 362-367. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.012

Kaplan, O., Yıldırım, N. C., Yıldırım, N. and Çimen, M. (2011) Toxic Elements in Animal Products and Environmental Health, Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 6 (3), 228-232. doi: 10.3923/ajava.2011.228.232

Kennedy, J., Delaney, L., Hudson, E. M., Mcgloin, A. and Wall, P. G. (2010) Public perceptions of the dioxin incident in Irish pork, Journal of Risk Research, 13 (7), 937-949. doi: 10.1080/13669871003782769

Keskinler, B. (2008). Atık bitkisel yağların çevresel etkileri, Erişim adresi: http://www.albiyobir.org.tr/e08-1501-sempozyum/b-keskinler.pdf (Erişim tarihi:15.12.2014)

Kimbrough, R. D., Carter, C. D., Liddle, J. A., Cline, R. E. and Phillips, P. E. (1977) Epidemiology and pathology of a tetrachlorodibenzodioxin poisoning episode, Archives of Environmental Health, 32 (2), 77-86.

Köroğlu, H. J. (2011) Atık madeni yağların kontrol ve izleme sisteminin oluşturulması, II. Ulusal Atık Madeni Yağ Çalıştayı, Ankara.

Krawczyk, T. (1996) Biodiesel-alternative fuel makes inroads but hurdles remain, Inform, 7 (8), 801-829.

Kunita, N., Kashimoto, T., Miyata, H., Fukushima, S., Hori, S. and Obana, H. (1984) Causal agents of Yusho, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 5 (1-2), 45-58.

Lam, M. K., Lee, M. T. and Mohamed, A. R. (2010) Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: A review, Biotechnology Advances, 28 (4), 500-518. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2010.03.002

Lemieux, P. M., Lutes, C. C. and Santoianni, D. A. (2004) Emissions of organic air toxics from open burning: a comprehensive review, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 30 (1), 1-32. doi: 10.1016/j.pecs.2003.08.001

Lulek, J. (1998) Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in some waste motor and transformer oils from Poland, Chemosphere, 37 (9-12), 2021-2030. doi: 10.1016/s0045-6535(98)00266-5

Ma, F. R. and Hanna, M. A. (1999) Biodiesel production: a review, Bioresource Technology, 70 (1), 1-15. doi: 10.1016/s0960-8524(99)00025-5

Mahaney, P. A. (1994) Effects of fresh-water petroleum contamination on

amphibian hatching and metamorphosis, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 13 (2), 259-265. doi: 10.1897/1552-8618(1994)13[259:eofpco]2.0.co;2

Mandal, P. K. (2005) Dioxin: a review of its environmental effects and its aryl hydrocarbon receptor biology, Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 175 (4), 221-230. doi: 10.1007/s00360-005-0483-3

MAPESAD. (2008) Türkiye'de Madeni Yağ Sektöründe 10 Numara Yağ Sorunu ile İlgilli Rapor, Madeni Yağ ve Petrol Ürünleri Sanayicileri Derneği, İstanbul.

Masuda, Y. (1996) Approach to risk assessment of chlorinated dioxins from Yusho PCB poisoning, Chemosphere, 32 (3), 583-594. doi: 10.1016/0045-6535(95)00314-2

MIDWEST (2014). Difference Between Used Oil & Waste Oil, MIDWEST Environmental Services. Erişim Adresi: http://www.midwestenvironmentalservices.com/articles/0312.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 12.12.2014)

MMO (2005). Kazan ve Brülörlerde Optimum Yanma Ayarı Baca Gazı & Yanma Verimliliği Analizörleri, Makine Mühendisleri Odası. Erişim Adresi: http://www.arsiv.mmo.org.tr/pdf/12012.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 12.12.2014)

Mobil1 (2014). Sentetik yağ nedir? Erişim Adresi: http://www.mobil1.com.tr/sentetik-yag-nedir.aspx (Erişim Tarihi: 02.01.2015)

Nash, J. F., Gettings, S. D., Diembeck, W., Chudowski, M. and Kraus, A. L. (1996) A toxicological review of topical exposure to white mineral oils, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 34 (2), 213-225. doi: 10.1016/0278-6915(95)00106-9

Nerın, C., Domeno, C., Echari, I. and Tornes, A. R. (1996) Determination of PCBs in some mineral waste oils, Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, 56 1-10.

Nerın, C., Domeno, C., Moliner, R., Lazaro, M. J., Suelves, I. and Valderrama, J. (2000) Behaviour of different industrial waste oils in a pyrolysis process: metals distribution and valuable products, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 55 (2), 171-183.

Nixon, H. and Saphores, J. D. (2002) Used oil policies to protect the environment: An overview of Canadian experiences, American Society of Civil Engineers, doi: 10.1061/40630(255)11

Nwachukwu, M. A., Feng, H. and Achilike, K. (2011) Integrated studies for automobile wastes management in developing countries; in the concept of environmentally friendly mechanic village, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 178 (1-4), 581-593. doi: 10.1007/s10661-010-1714-y

Oanh, N. T. K., Polprasert, C., Kittipongvises, S., Kartensen, K. H., Dan, N. P., Nghiem, L. H. And Chang-Chien, G. P. (2010) Chracterization of stack emission from simple incinerator burning PCB contaminated oil

OEHHA. (2007) A Review of the Potential Human anad Environmental Health Impacts of Synthetic Motor Oil, Environmental Protection Agency/ Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California.

Onozuka, D., Yoshimura, T., Kaneko, S. and Furue, M. (2009) Mortality After Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans: A 40-Year Follow-up Study of Yusho Patients, American Journal of Epidemiology, 169 (1), 86-95. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwn295

Özbey, A. and Metin, E. (2010) PETDER Atık Yagların Yönetimi Projesi Sonuçları, Petrol Sanayi Derneği

PETDER (2008) 2008 Yılı Sektör Raporu, Petrol Sanayi Derneği, İstanbul.

PETDER (2009) Sector Report 2009, Petrol Sanayi Derneği, İstanbul.

PETDER (2012-a) Sektör Raporu 2012, Petrol Sanayi Derneği, İstanbul.

PETDER (2012-b) 10 Numara Yağ Sorununa İlişkin Değerlendirmeler ve Çözüm Önerileri, Petrol Sanayi Derneği, İstanbul.

PETDER (2014) Atık Yağların Yönetimi 2013 Yılı Faaliyet Raporu, Petrol Sanayi Derneği, İstanbul.

Rauckyte, T., Hargreaves, D. J. and Pawlak, Z. (2006) Determination of heavy metals and volatile aromatic compounds in used engine oils and sludges, Fuel, 85 (4), 481-485. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2005.08.004

Resmi Gazete Sayısı: 26952, (2008) Atık Yağların Kontrolü Yönetmeliği, Çevre ve Şehircilik Bakanlığı, Ankara.

Resmi Gazete Sayısı: 27721, (2010) Atıkların Yakılmasına İlişkin Yönetmelik, Çevre ve Şehircilik Bakanlığı, Ankara.

Resmi Gazete Sayısı: 29036, (2014) Çevre ve Şehircilik Bakanlığı, Atıktan

Türetilmiş Yakıt, Ek Yakıt ve Alternatif Hammadde Tebliği, Ankara.

Rizvi, S. (1992) Lubricant additives and their functions, Materials Park, OH: ASM International, 1992., 98-112.

Roszko, M., Szterk, A., Szymczyk, K. and Waszkiewicz-Robak, B. (2012) PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and Pesticides in Cold-Pressed vegetable oils, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 89 (3), 389-400. doi: 10.1007/s11746-011-1926-5

Satana, A. (2002) Türkiye ve Trakya'da bitkisel yağ üretimi, Marmara Coğrafya Dergisi, (5)

Seaton, A., Macnee, W., Donaldson, K. and Godden, D. (1995) Particulate air pollution and acute health effects, Lancet, 345 (8943), 176-178. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(95)90173-6

Sivas, İÇD. (2010) Sivas 2010 Çevre Durum Raporu, Sivas Valiliği, Sivas.

TÇMB (2014). Türkiye Çimento Müstahsilleri Birliği Fabrika Listeleri. Erişim Adresi: http://www.tcma.org.tr/index.php?page=icerikgoster&cntID=99 (Erişim Tarihi: 4.11.2014)

Teixeira, E. C., Garcia, K. O., Meincke, L. and Leal, K. A. (2011) Study of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fine and coarse atmospheric particles, Atmospheric Research, 101 (3), 631-639. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.04.010

Thomanetz, E. (2012) Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste, Waste Management & Research, 30 (4), 404-412. doi: 10.1177/0734242x12440480

Top-Taşkaya, B. and Uçum, İ. (2012) Türkiye'de Bitkisel Yağ Açığı, TEPGE BAKIŞ (Tarımsal Ekonomi ve politika Geliştirme Enstitüsü), 14(2)

TÜİK (2015). Bitkisel üretim istatistikleri, Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (TÜİK). Erişim Adresi: http://tuikapp.tuik.gov.tr/bitkiselapp/bitkisel.zul (Erişim Tarihi: 16.02.2015)

UDH Bakanlığı (2011) Transportation in Turkey, Country Report, Erişim Adresi: http://www.comcec.org/UserFiles/File/ulastirma/%C3%9CLKE%20RAPORLARI/Turkey.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 03.03.2015)

Uyaroğlu, A., Yücesu, H. S. and Çıtak, R. (2010) Piston arızalarının analizi, Teknik-Online Dergisi, 9(2)

Uzun, Y. and Gedik, K. (2012) Akdeniz Bölgesinde oluşan atık yağların çevresel akıbetinin incelenmesi, Ulusal Katı Atık Yönetimi Kongresi (UKAY), Antalya, 37. 17-20 Ekim 2012.

Vazquezduhalt, R. (1989) Environmental impact of used motor oil, Science of the Total Environment, 79 (1), 1-23. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(89)90049-1

Wall, P., Reilly, A., Heraghty, M., Dalton, T., Keegan, J., O'brien, K. and Maloney, M. (2009) Report of The Inter-Agency Review Group on the Dioxin Contamination Incident in Ireland in December 2008, Department of Agriculture, Food and The Marine, Dublin.

Wong, P. K. and Wang, J. (2001) The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lubricating oil over time - a comparison of supercritical fluid and liquid-liquid extraction methods, Environmental Pollution, 112 (3), 407-415. doi: 10.1016/s0269-7491(00)00142-1

Yaşar, O. (2002) Sanayi coğrafyası açısından bir araştırma: Türkiye'de tarıma dayalı sanayiler, Çantay Kitabevi, İstanbul.

Yaşar, O. (2004) Türk bitkisel yağ sanayii ve sorunları/Turkish manufacture of vegetable and their problems, Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi, 9 (12)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.