Spatial Variations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Concentrations in the Receiving Water Environment: The Nilüfer Creek

Gizem EKER, Yücel TAŞDEMİR
1.766 490

Abstract


The objective of this study was to identify the spatial variations in PAH concentrations in the surface water samples, to determine the distribution of PAH species and their possible sources in the Nilüfer Creek which is one of the most important water resources in Bursa. Surface water samples taken from 6 different locations on the Nilüfer Creek were ultrasonically extracted and PAH content of the samples were measured by using a gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  Spatial total 12 (∑12) PAH concentration profiles were in the range of 334-840 ng/L. The highest ∑12 PAH levels was measured as 840 ng/L in the sampling point (N2) located after East Wastewater Treatment Plant discharge. Gümüştepe recreation area (N1) was in the second order with regards to PAH levels. It was observed that only 3- and 4-ring species existed in the samples. 5- and 6-ring species were not detected. 3 ring species (Phe, Ant) constitute 93% of the ∑12 PAH content, 4 ring species (Fl, Pyr, BaA and Chr) constitute 7%. The diagnostic ratios of PAH species suggested that the pollution in the Nilüfer Creek is mostly pyrolytic.

Keywords


Nilüfer Creek; PAH Compounds; Compositions; Sources

Full Text:

PDF (Türkçe)


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17482/uujfe.01851

References


Bai, C.Y., Meng, W., Xu, J., Zhang, Y. Guo, C., Lv, J., Wan, J. (2014) Occurrence, distribution, environmental risk assessment and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of the Liaohe river basin, Bulletin Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 93, 744–751, doi:10.1007/s00128-014-1390-7

Baumard P., Budzinski H., Garrigues P., Sorbe J.C., Burgeot T. and Bellocq J. (1998) Concentrations of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in various marine organisms in relation to those in sediments and to trophic level, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 951-960, doi:10.1016/S0025-326x(98)00088-5

Bozlaker, A., Muezzinoglu, A., Odabasi, M. (2008) Atmospheric concentrations, dry deposition and air-soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an industrial region in Turkey, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 153,1093-1102, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.09.064

Brum, D.M., Netto, A.D.P. (2009) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Tripuí River, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, Journal of Hazardous Materials 165, 447–453, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.10.015

Chen B., Xuan X., Zhu, L., Wang, J., Gao, Y., Yang, K., Shen, X. and Lou, B. (2004) Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters, sediments and soils of Hangzhou City, China, Water Reearch, 38, 3558-3568, doi:10.1016/j.watres.2004.05.013

Cindoruk S.S., Birgül A., Esen F., Taşdemir Y. (2012) Bursa’da yarıkırsal bir bölge'de poliklorlu bifeniller, organoklorlu pestisitler ve polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbonların toplam çökelme akılarının belirlenmesi, Hava Kirliliği Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1,10–18

Dere, Ş., Dalkıran, N., Karacaoğlu, D., Elmacı, A., Dülger, B. ve Şentürk, E. (2006) Relationships among epipelic diatom taxa, bacterial abundances and water quality in a highly polluted stream catchment, Bursa-Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 112, 1-22, doi:10.1007/s10661-006-0213-7

Devlet Su işleri (DSİ) Faaliyet Raporu, 2010.

Doong R. and Lin Y. (2004) Characterization and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in surface sediment and water from Gao-Ping River, Traiwan, Water Research, 38, 1733-1744, doi:10.1016/j.watres.2003.12.042

Esen, F. (2006) Bursa Atmosferindeki PAH’ların Gaz/Partikül Konsantrasyon Dağılımları ve Kuru Çökelme Miktarları, Doktora Tezi, Dnışman: Prof. Dr. Yücel Taşdemir, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Uludağ Üniversitesi

Esen F., Tasdemir Y., Vardar N. (2008) Atmospheric concentrations of PAHs, their possible sources and gas-to-particle partitioning at a residential site of Bursa, Turkey, Atmospheric Research,88,243–255, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.11. 022

Fernandes, M. B., Sicre, M. A., Boireau, A. and Tronczynski, J. (1997) Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions in the Seine River and its estuary, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34, 857-867, doi:10.1016/S0025-326x(97)00063-5

Golomb, D., Barry, E., Fisher, G., Varanusupakul, P., Koleda, M. and Rooney, T. (2001) Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near New England coastal waters, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 6245-6258, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00456-3

Guo, W., He, M., Yang, Z., Lin, C., Quan, X., Wang, H. (2007) Distribution of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River watershed, China, Chemosphere, 68, 93-104, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.12.072

Gustafson, K. E. and Dickhut, R. M. (1997) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Southern Chesapeake Bay surface water: evaluation of three methods for determining freely dissolved water concentrations, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16, 452–461, doi:10.1897/1551-5028(1997)016<0452:Dopahi>2.3.Co;2

Haynes, D. and Johnson, J. E. (2000) Organochlorine, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollutant concentrations in the great barrier reef (Australia) environment: a review, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 41: 267-278, doi:10.1016/S0025-326x(00)00134-X

IARC, PAH As Occupational Carcinogens, In: A. Bjørseth, G. Becker, Editors, 1986. PAH Work Atmosphere Occurrence And Determination, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1986, 1–13.

Kannan K., Kober J.L., Kang Y.S., Masunaga S., Nakanishi J., Ostaszewski A., Giesy J.P. (2001) Polychlorinated naphthalenes, biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylphenols in sediment from the Detroit and Rouge Rivers, Michian. USA, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20, 1878-1889, doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2001)020<1878:Pnbdpd>2.0.Co;2

Karaca G. (2013) Arıtma Çamurları ve Nilüfer Çayı Sedimentindeki Poliaromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH) Seviyelerinin Belirlenmesi ve Giderimlerinin Araştırılması, Danışman: Yücel Taşdemir, Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü.

Karaca G. ve Taşdemir, Y. (2014) Temporal and spatial variations in PAH concentrations in the sediment from the Nilufer Creek in Bursa, Turkey, Journal of Environmental Science and Health: Part A, 49, 900-912, doi:10.1080/10934529.2014.894330

Karaer F., Küçükballı A. (2006) Monitoring of water quality and assessment of organic pollution load in the Nilürfer stream, Turkey Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 114, 391–417, doi:10.1007/s10661-006-5029-y

Karakaş D., Pekey B., Karakoç F.T., Tolun L., Morkoç E., Tüfekçi H., Yakupoğlu G., Yakan H. (2004) İzmit Körfezine Giren Kansorejenik, Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbonların (PAH): Kaynak ve Seviye tespiti, TÜBİTAK Proje No: YDABAG-101Y111.

Karakoç F.T., Tolun L., Henkelmann B., Klimm C., Okay O., Schramm K.W. (2002) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) distributions in the Bay of Marmara sea:Izmit Bay, Environmental Pollution, 119, 383–397, doi:Pii S0269-7491(01)00341-4

Karakoç F.T., Tolun L., Tüfekçi V., Karakaş D., Morkoç E., Tüfekçi H., Karakoç F., Okay O., Olgun A. (2004) Deprem Sonrası İzmit Körfezinde Kirlilik Boyutunun Tespiti, Proje No: 101Y083.

Khim J.S., Kannan K., Villeneuve D.L., Koh C.H., Giesy J.P. (1999) Characterization and distribution of trace organic contaminants in sediment from Masan Bay, Korea. 1.Instrumental Analysis, Environmental Science and Technology, 33, 4199-4205, doi:10.1021/Es9904484

Lee S.C., Ho, K.F., Chan L.Y.,Zielinska B., Chow J.C. (2001) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonyl compounds in urban atmosphere of Hong Kong, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 5949-5960, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00374-0

Li G., Xia X., Yang Z., Wang R., Voulvoulis N. (2006) Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, China, Environmental Pollution, 144, 985-993, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.01.047

Maskaoui K, Zhou J.L, Hong H.S, Zhang Z.L. (2002) Contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Jiulong River Estuary and Western Xiamen Sea, China, Environmental Pollution, 118, 109-122, doi:Pii S0269-7491(01)00208-1

Nagy, A.S., ,Szabo, J., Vass, I. (2014) Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water and sediments of the Danube River and its tributaries, Hungary, Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 49, 1134-1141, doi:10.1080/10934529.2014.897155

Odabaşı, M., Falay, E.O., Tuna, G., Altiok, H., Kara, M., Dumanoglu, Y., Bayram, A., Tolunay, D., Elbir, T. (2015) Biomonitoring the spatial and historical variations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in an ındustrial region, Environmental Science and Technology, 49, 2105-2114, doi:10.1021/Es506316t

Readman J.W., Mantoura R.F.C., Rhead M.M. (1987) A rocard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution obtained from accreting sediments of the Tamar Estuary, UK: evidence for nonequilibrium behaviour of PAH, Science of the Total Environment, 66, 73-94, doi:10.1016/0048-9697(87)90079-9

Salihoğlu K, Salihoglu G., Tasdemir Y., Cindoruk S.S., Yolsal D., Ogulmus R., Karaca G. (2010) Comparison of polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons levels in sludges from municipal and ındustrial wastewater treatment plants, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 58: 523–534, doi:DOI 10.1007/s00244-009-9389-5

Shi Z.,Tao S., Pan B., Fan W., He X.C., Zuo Q., Wu S.P., Li B.G., Cao J., Liu W. X., Xu F.L., Wang X.J., Shen W.R., Wong P.K. (2005) Contamination of rivers in Tianjin, China by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Environmental Pollution, 134: 97-111, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2004.07.014

Smith, D.J.T. ve Harrison R.M. (1996) Concentrations, trends and vehicle source profile of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the U.K. atmosphere, Atmospheric Environment, 30, 2513-2525, doi:Doi 10.1016/1352-2310(95)00474-2

Sprovieri M., Feo M.L., Prevedello L., Manta D.S.,Sammartino S.,Tamburrino S., Marsella E. (2007) Heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments of the Naples harbour (Southern Italy), Chemosphere, 67, 998–1009, doi:DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.10.055

Taşdemir Y., Esen F. (2007) Urban air PAHs: concentrations, temporal changes and gas/particle partitioning at a traffic site in Turkey, Atmospheric Research, 84, 1–12, doi:DOI 10.1016/j.atmopsres.2006.04.003

Trably E. ve Patureau D. (2006) Successful treatment of low PAH-contaminated sewage sludge in aerobic bioreactors, Environmental Science and Pollutant Research, 13, 170-176, doi:DOI 10.1065/espr2005.06.263

TÜİK-Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu, http://tuik.gov.tr, Erişim Tarihi: 09.02.2015, Konu: Temel İstatistikler.

Ünlü S., Alpar B., Öztürk K., Vardar D. (2010) PAHs in the surficial sediments from Lake Iznik (Turkey):spatial distributions and sources, Bulletin of Environment Contamination and Toxicology, 85, 573-580, doi:10.1007/s00128-010-0134-6

Üstün G.E. (2011) The Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the waters of the Nilufer Stream in Bursa, Ekoloji 20 (81), 61-66, doi: 10.5053/ekoloji.2011.819

Wang X.T., Miao Y., Zhang Y., Li Y.C., Wu M.H., Yu G. (2014) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils of the megacity Shanghai: Occurrence, source apportionment and potential human health risk, Environmental Pollution, 184, 138-144, doi:DOI 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.08.029

Xu, X.Y., Jiang, Z.Y., Wang, J.H., Zhu, H., Dou, J.F., Narres, H.D., Hofmann, D., Klumpp, E. (2012) Distribution and characterizing sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of surface water from Jialing River, journal of Central South University of Technology, 19(3), 850-854, doi:10.1007/s11771-012-1082-6

Yılmaz A., Özer U., Aksoy S., Torunoğlu T. (1998) Evaluation of heavy metal contents, polyaromatic petroleum hydrocarbons and some inorganic pollutants in the south Marmara rivers, Turkey, Fresenius Environment Bulletin, 7, 269-276,

Yunker M.B., Macdonald R.W., Vingarzan R., Mitchell R.H., Goyette D., Sylvestre S. (2002) PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition, Organic Geochemistry, 33, 489–515, doi:Pii S0146-6380(02)00002-5.

Zakaria M.P., Horinochi A., Tsutsumi S., Takda H., Ismail A. (2000) Oil pollution in the Straits of Malacca, Malaysia:application of moleculer markers for source identification, Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 1189-1196, doi:Doi 10.1021/Es990950o

Zhao, X., Qiu, H.R., Zhao, Y.L., Shen, J.M., Chen, Z.L., Chen, J.X. (2015) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water from the upper reach of the Yellow River, Northwestern China, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(9), 6950-6956, doi:10.1007/s11356-014-3846-z

Zhou J.L., Maskaoui K. (2003) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and surface sediments from Daya Bay, China, Environmental Pollution, 121, 269–281, doi:Pii S0269-7491(02)00215-4, doi 10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00215-4




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.