Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Systems: Terminology and Present Studies

Ahmet YILDIZ, Osman KOPMAZ
1.796 1.026

Abstract


The use of continuously variable transmission systems in many different areas such as aerospace, robotics, machinery and automotive industries as an alternative to conventional speed changers with constant ratio becomes widely.Especially in the automotive industry, these systems have been used increasingly, since they enable that internal combustion engines in vehicles run at optimal speeds, and consequently provide considerable fuel savings and therefore lower emission values and also they provide powerful acceleration and quiet working. CVT systems have several constructive variants such as belted, chained, balled, toroidal etc. In this paper, toroidal CVT systems based on elastohydrodynamic principles are concerned with, and fundamental works of last two decades in this field are reviewed. However, the relevant terminology and dynamics along with the control of these systems are briefly treated for better understanding of the literature mentioned. Attention is drawn to the lack of some significant issues in present research works, and potential future works are pointed out. This paper, to the authors’ knowledge, will be the first review on toroidal CVT systems in Turkish literature

Keywords


Continuously Variable Transmission, CVT, Toroidal CVT, Traction Drive CVT

Full Text:

PDF (Türkçe)


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17482/uujfe.17293

References


Akehurst S., Parker, D. A., Schaff S. (2006). CVT rolling traction drives – a review of research into their design, functionality, and modeling. Journal of Mechanical Design 128 (5) 1165–1176.

Asano, K. (2004). Koyo’s Approach to Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) for Automobiles. Koyo Engineering Journal English Edition, 168E:14-18.

Attia, N. A., Qin, D., Shi, W., Li, H., (2003). A Parametric Study on the Contact Stress of Half Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission. Journal of Chongqing University, 2(2):6- 11.

Attia, N. A., (2005). Predicting the Life Contact for Half Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission, Information Technology Journal, 4(3):222-227.

Belfiore, N. P., Stefani, G. D. (2003). Ball toroidal CVT: a feasibility study based on topology, kinematics, statics and lubrication, International Journal of Vehicle Design 23 (3– 4) 304–331.

Bottiglione, F., Carbone, G., Novellis, L. D., Mangialardi, L., Mantriota, G. (2013). Mechanical Hybrid KERS Based on Toroidal Traction Drives: An Example of Smart Tribological Design to Improve Terrestrial Vehicle Performance. Advances in Tribology, 2013:1-9.

Brace, C., Deacon, M., Vaughan, N. D., Burrows, C. R., Horrocks, R. W. (1997). Integrated passenger car diesel CVT powertrain control for economy and low emissions. ImechE International Seminar S540, Advanced Vehicle Transmission and Powertrain Management, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Brace, C., Deacon, M., Vaughan, N. D., Horrocks, R. W., Burrows, C. R. (1999). The compromise in reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption from a Diesel CVT powertrain over typical usage cycles. Proceeding of International Congress CVT, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Carbone, G., Mangialardi, L., Mantriota, G. (2002). Fuel consumption of a mid class vehicle with infinitely variable transmission. SAE International Journal of Engines 110 (3) 2474– 2483.

Carbone, G., Mangialardi, L., Mantriota, G., SORIA, L., (2004a). Performance of a City Bus equipped with a Toroidal Traction Drive IASME TRANSACTIONS 1 (1) 16-23

Carbone, G., Mangialardi, L., Mantriota, G., (2004b). A comparison of the performances of full and half toroidal traction drives. Mechanism and Machine Theory, 39 921–942.

Carbone, G., Mangialardi, L., Bonsen, B., Tursi, C., Veenhuizen, P. A. (2007). CVT dynamics: Theory and experiments Mechanism and Machine Theory 42 409-428.

Carbone, G., Novellis, L. D., Commissaris, G., Steinbuch, M. (2010). An Enhanced CMM Model for the Accurate Prediction of Steady-State Performance of CVT Chain Drives. Journal of Mechanical Design (132) 021005 1-8.

Dama, R., Chang, L., (1997). An efficient and accurate calculation of traction in elastohydrodynamic contacts. Wear 206:113-121.

Delkhosh, M., Foumani, M. S., Boroushaki, M., Ekhtiari, M., Dehghani, M. (2011). Geometrical Optimization of Half Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Using Particle Swarm Optimization. Scientia Iranica, 18(5):1126-1132.

Delkhosh, M., Foumani, M. S., (2013). Optimisation of full-toroidal continuously variable transmission in conjunction with fixed ratio mechanism using particle swarm optimisation. Vehicle System Dynamics, 51(5) 671-683.

Dick, E. (2010). The role of Variable drive technology in realising fuel economy and emissions improvements. FISITA World Automotive Congress, Budapest, Hungary.

Evans, S., Lee, A., Hillsden A., Nagatomi, E., (2009). The durability of traction fluid in full- toroidal traction drives under extreme high-temperature conditions. World Tribology Congress, Kyoto, Japan.

Fang, N.,Chang, L., Webster, M. N.,Jackson, A., (2000). A non-averaging method of determining the rheological properties of traction fluids. Tribology International, 33:751-760.

Fuchs R., Hasuda Y., James I. (2002). Modeling simulation and validation for the control development of a full-toroidal IVT, Proceedings of CVT 2002 Congress, Berichte, (1709) 121–129.

Fuchs, R., Hasuda, Y., James, I., (2004). Dynamic Performance Analysis of a Full Toroidal IVT A Theoretical Approach. International Continuously Variable and Hybrid Transmission Congress. 23-25 September 2004 San Francisco, California, U.S. 04CVT-30.

Fuchs, R., Tamura, T., Mccullough, N., Matsumoto, K. (2009). The Making of the Full Toroidal Variator. JTEKT Engineering Journal English Edition, 1006E:31-36.

Ge, D. W., Ariyono, S., Mon. D. T. (2010). A Review On Continuously Variable Transmissions Control. National Conference in Mechanical Engineering Research and Postgraduate Students Pahang, Malaysia, 543-554.

Gillespie, R. B., Moore, C. A., Peshkin, M., Colgate, J. E. (2002). Kinematic Creep in a Continuously Variable Transmission: Traction Drive Mechanics for Cobots. Journal of Mechanical Design 124:713-722

Hamrock J. B., (1994). Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication. McGraw-Hill, New York

Hasuda, Y., Fuchs, R., (2002). Development of IVT Variator Dynamic Model. Koyo Engineering Journal English Edition, 160E:24-28.

Iino, T., Okuda, A., Takano, M., Tanaka, M., Sakai, K., Asano, T., Fushimi, K. (2003). Research of hydrostatic CVT for passenger vehicles, JSAE Review 24 (3) 227–230.

Imanishi, T., Machida, H., Tanaka, H. (1996). A Geometrical Study of Toroidal CVT - Comparison between Half Toroidal and Full Toroidal JSAE Review 17(4):447-447(1).

Imanishi, T., Machida, H., (2001). Development of Powertoros Unit Half Toroidal CVT Comparison between Half Toroidal and Full Toroidal CVTs (2). Motion and Control NSK, 10:1-8.

Jacod, B., Venner, C. H., Lugt, P. M. (2001). A Generalized Traction Curve for EHL Contacts. Journal of Tribology 123 248-253.

Kanphet, P., Jirawattana, P., Direcksataporn B. (2005). Optimal operation and control of a hydrostatic CVT powertrain. SAE Transactions Journal of Passenger Cars: Mechanical Systems 114 (6) 1838–1845.

Kim, J., Park, F. C., Park, Y., Shizuo, M. (2002). Design and analysis of a spherical continuously variable transmission, Journal of Mechanical Design 124 (1) 21–29.

Kim, S., Moore, C., Peshkin, M., Colgate, J.E. (2008) Causes of Microslip in a Continuously Variable Transmission. Journal of Mechanical Design 130:1-9

Lee, A.P., Newall, J., Goto, M., Misada, Y., Ono, Y. (2004). Experimental Validation of Full Toroidal Fatigue Life, International Continuously Variable and Hybrid Transmission Congress 23-25 September 2004 San Francisco, California, U.S. 04CVT-21.

Lee, A., Hillsden, A., Ono Y., Evans, S., (2009). Full-toroidal traction drive high temperature durability. JSME Int. Conference on Motion and Power Transmission, Proceedings of MPT2009 Sendai, Japan.

Li, X. M., Guo, F., Fan, B., Yang, P., (2010). Influence of spinning on the rolling EHL films. Tribology International 43 2020–2028.

Machida, H., Murakami, Y., (2000). Development of Powertoros Unit Half Toroidal CVT. Motion and Control NSK, 9:15-26.

Mantriota, G. (2005). Fuel consumption of a vehicle with power split CVT system. International Journal of Vehicle Design 37(4) 327–342.

Misada, Y., Oono, Y., (2005). Transmission Efficiency and Power Capasity Analysis of Infinitely Variable Transmission Variator. Koyo Engineering Journal English Edition, 168E:43-46.

Miyata, S., Liu, D., (2007). Study of the control mechanism of a Half-Toroidal CVT during load transmission. Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems and Manufacturing 1(3) 346-357.

Nanbu, T., Yasuda, Y., Ushijima, K., Watanabe J., Zhu, D. (2008). Increase of Traction Coefficient due to Surface Microtexture. Tribology Letters 29:105-118.

Newall, J. P., Lee A. P., (2003). Measurement and Prediction of Spin Losses in the EHL Point Contacts of the Full Toroidal Variator, Proc. 30th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Lyon.

Novellis, D. L., Carbone, G., Mangialardi, L. (2012). Traction and Efficiency Performance of the Double Roller Full-Toroidal Variator: A Comparison With Half- and Full-Toroidal Drives. Journal of Mechanical Design 134/071005 1:14.

Ochiai, M., (2005). Efficiency Analysis of Half-Toroidal CVT Considering Deformation of Pivot Shaft. NSK Motion & Control 17: 48-54.

Ohno, N., (2007). High-pressure behavior of toroidal CVT fluid for automobile. Tribology International, 40:233-238.

Osawa, M., (2005). Basic Analysis Towards Further Development of Continuously Variable Transmission (Overview). Review of Toyota CRDL 40(3) 1-5.

Osumi, T., Ueda, K., Nobumoto, H., Sakaki, M.,Fukuma, T., (2004). Transient analysis of geared neutral type half-toroidal CVT. Technical Research Center, Mazda Motor Corporation Shinchi 3-1, Fuchu-cho, Hiroshima 730-8670.

Pandey, R. K.,Ghosh, M. K., (1998). A thermal analysis of traction in elastohydrodynamic rolling/sliding line contacts. Wear, 216:106-114.

Patil, H. S., (2011). An Experimental Study on Full ‘Toroidal’ Continuously Variable Transmission System. Int. J. Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology. 5(1) 19-23.

Pfiffner, R., Guzzella, L., Onder C. H., (2003) Fuel-optimal control of CVT powertrains. Control Engineering Practice 11: 329–336

Pohl, B., Simister, M., Smithson, R., Miller D. (2004). Configuration Analysis of a Spherical Traction Drive CVT/IVT. International Continuously Variable and Hybrid Transmission Congress 23-25 September 2004 San Francisco, California, U.S. 04CVT-9.

Raghavan, M., (2002). Kinematics of the Full-Toroidal Traction Drive Variator. Journal of Mechanical Design, 124:448-455.

Roy, T. D., Zhang, N. (2004). Effect of a half-toroidal continuously variable unit on the dynamics of a complete powertrain: a parametric free vibration analysis. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile 128:471-484.

Sanda, S., Hayakawa, K., (2005). Traction Drive System and its Characteristics as Power Transmission. R&D Review of Toyota CRDL 40 (3) 30-39.

Savaresi, S. M., Taroni, F. L., Previdi, F., Bittanti, S., (2004). Control System Design on a Power-Split CVT for High-Power Agricultural Tractors. Transactions on Mechatronics (9) 3 569-579.

Sharif, K. J., Evans, H. P., Snidle, R. W., Newall, J. P., (2004). Modeling of Film Thickness and Traction in a Variable Ratio Traction Drive Rig. Journal of Tribology, 126:92-104.

Srivastava, N., Haque, I. (2009a). A review on belt and chain continuously variable transmissions (CVT): Dynamics and control, Mechanism and Machine Theory 44(2009) 19- 41

Srivastava, N., Haque, I. (2009b). Nonlinear dynamics of a friction-limited drive: Application to a chain continuously variable transmission (CVT) system. Journal of Sound and Vibration 321:319-341

Tanaka, H., Eguechi, M., (1993). Stability of a Speed Ratio Conrtol Servo-mechanism for a Half-Toroidal Traction Drive CVT. JSME International Journal, C36(1):135-140.

Tanaka, H., Machida, H., Hata, H., Nakano, M. (1995). Half-Toroidal Traction Drive Continuously Variable Power Transmission for Automobiles. JSME International Journal C- 38(4) 772-777.

Tanaka. H., Machida. H., (1996). Half-toroidal traction drive continuously variable power transmission. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology 210(3) 205-212.

Tanaka H. (2003). Torque control of a double cavity half-toroidal CVT, International Journal of Vehicle Design 32 (3–4) 208–215.

Tevaarwerk, J. L., Johnson, K. L., (1979). The Influence of Fluid Rheology on the Performance of Traction Drives. Journal of Lubrication Technology, 101: 266-273.

Webster, M.N., Lee, G.H., (2006). Effect of EHL Contact Condition on the Behavior of traction Fluid. Tribology Transactions, 49: 439-448.

Yamashita, R., (2004). Analysis of Traction on Infinitely Variable Transmission (IVT). Koyo Engineering Journal English Edition, 164E:30-34.

Yıldız, A., (2013). Mekanik Preslerde Kullanılmaya Uygun Bir Sürekli Değişken Aktarma Organının Tasarımı ve Analizi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Bursa.

Yildiz, C., Wasfy, T. M., (2011). Time-accurate Multibody Dynamics Model for Toroidal Traction Drives. International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Washington D.C. USA.

Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., Tobler, W., (2000). A Systematic Model for the Analysis of Contact, Side Slip and Traction of Toroidal Drives. Journal of Mechanical Design, 122: 523-528.

Zheng, C. H., Lim, W. S., Cha, S. W. (2011). Performance optimization of CVT for two- wheeled vehicles. International Journal of Automotive Technology 12(3) 461-468

Zou Z., Zhang Y., (2000). Ratio Control of Traction Drive Continuously Variable Transmissions. Proceedings of the American Control Conference, June 2000, Chicago, USA.

Zou, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., Tobler. W., (2001). Modeling and Simulation of Traction Drive Dynamics and Control. Journal of Mechanical Design, (123) 556-561.

Makale 04.02.2014 tarihinde alınmış, 03.03.2014 tarihinde düzeltilmiş, 06.03.2014 tarihinde kabul edilmiştir.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.